The Theory of Multipolar World

The introductiory lecture of Russian political philosopher Alexander Dugin in front of the LSE students (Grimshaw Club) in Moscow State Univeristy on the Theory of Multipolar World. 

With the participation of Mark Sleboda and Tim Kirby.

Excerpts: "A multipolar world is not bipolar world (such as we knew it in the second half of the twentieth century), because in today's world there is no power that can single-handedly resist the strategic power of the United States and countries of NATO, and moreover, there is no generalizing and coherent ideology capable of uniting a large part of humanity in a hard ideological opposition to the ideology of liberal democracy, capitalism, and "human rights", on which bases the new, this time sole hegemony of the United States. Nor modern Russia, nor China, nor India, nor some other state, can not pretend under these conditions alone for the status of the second pole. Recovery of bipolarity is impossible for ideological reasons (the end of the general appeal of Marxism), nor for the strategic potential and accumulated military-technical resources (U.S. and NATO countries over the past 30 years took the lead insomuch, that the symmetric competition with them in the military-strategic, economic and technical spheres is not possible for any single country)."


1. Multipolar world is a radical alternative to the unipolar world (that in fact exists in the present situation) due to the fact that it insists on the presence of a few independent and sovereign centers of global strategic decision-making on the global level.

 2. These centers should be sufficiently equipped and financially, materially independent to be able to defend its sovereignty in the face of direct invasion of a potential enemy on the material level, as a model of which should be taken the most powerful force today. This requirement is reduced to being able to withstand the financial and military-strategic hegemony of the United States and NATO countries.

3. These centers of decision-making must not accept as a sine qua non universalism of Western standards, norms and values ​​(democracy, liberalism, free market, parliamentarism, human rights, individualism, cosmopolitanism, etc.) and can be completely independent of spiritual hegemony of the West.

4. Multipolar world does not imply a return to the bipolar system, because today there is no strategic, nor ideological single force that can single-handedly resist the material and spiritual hegemony of the modern West and its leader - the United States. There must be more than two poles in a multipolar world.

5. Multipolar world does not consider seriously the sovereignty of existing nation-states, while it is declared only on a purely legal level, and is not confirmed by the presence of sufficient power, strategic, economic and political potential. In the XXI century it is no longer enough to be a national state, in order to be a sovereign entity. In such circumstances real sovereignty may be only achieved by a combination, coalition of states. Westphalian system, which continues to exist de jure, does not longer reflect the realities of a system of international relations and requires revision.

6. Multipolarity is not reducible to nonpolarity nor to multilateralism, because it does not put the center of decision-making (pole) into the world government, nor to the club of U.S. and their democratic allies ("global West"), nor to the level of sub-state networks, NGOs and other instances of civil society. A pole must be localized somewhere else.